© 2006 RogueTurtle.com
In an earlier article, "Butchering Poultry", I wrote step-by-step instructions on butchering birds. I have come into a lot more information now and I want to share it with you:
Probably one of the most difficult tasks facing a survivalist who has never had to process their own meat is the killing of the animal. Chickens, which have a ghastly reputation for their activity after their heads have been removed, are easy to kill. There are easier ways than the old tried and true "axe, chicken, and a tree stump" technique. The trick is to keep the bird calm just before death.
Here are several methods you may use to make a difficult job a little easier:
(I know what you are thinking. Don't knock it until you've tried it.)
A chicken can be hypnotized, or put into a trance by holding its head down against the ground, and continuously drawing a line along the ground with a stick or a finger, starting at its beak and extending straight outward in front of the chicken. Some people say drawing a chalk line on the floor will also work. If the chicken is hypnotized in this manner, it will remain immobile for somewhere between 15 seconds to 30 minutes, continuing to stare at the line.
This technique is useful for farmers who need to slaughter a chicken and do not have help immediately available. It is also useful in feeding large pet reptiles who are too slow to catch a moving chicken.
The first known written reference for this method came in 1646, in Mirabile Experimentum de Imaginatione Gallinae by Athanasius Kircher. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The chalk line has subsequently been found to be totally unnecessary. The best way to hypnotize a chicken is to hold it firmly on its side on a flat surface for around thirty seconds. Although the bird will struggle initially, it will suddenly become completely still, the muscles may become stiff and assume a waxy flexibility - remaining in any position you care to place them. This immobility can last from one minute to up to two or more hours with the bird lying inert, until suddenly it will give a few little squawking sounds before rising to its feet and running away.
H B Gibson, in his book Hypnosis - its Nature and Therapeutic Uses - states the record period for a chicken remaining in hypnosis is 3 hours 47 minutes. When the chicken's eyes are closed it is likely to remain hypnotized for a longer time length.
How to Hypnotize a Chicken Source: zyra.tv
This article was written by someone who used the hypnotized chickens for "parlor tricks". With a few changes, it can be used to butcher the chickens painlessly.
1. First catch your chicken. This should be done neatly without fuss. Avoid unseemly behavior such as chasing wild chickens around. Having a tame chicken is best.
2. Holding the chicken the right side up with the head uppermost, gently but firmly grasp the legs of the chicken underneath. It's important to have a good grip on both of the legs but to avoid squeezing too much. The claws should be arranged to avoid damage to you or to the chicken.
3. With deft sleight-of-hand, the chicken is swung speedily and carefully roll into the upside-down position, leaving you holding the chicken by the legs! This will surprise the chicken, but it will not be upset. Note that although it is no longer regarded as acceptable by magicians to lift a rabbit by the ears, rabbit ears are not designed by nature to hold the weight of the rabbit. In contrast, the legs of a chicken are easily strong enough to hold the weight of a chicken.
4. Hold on to your chicken. If it flaps its wings, the wing tips should not come into contact with anything. You have to be careful, for the safe well-being of the chicken and also to save your eyes from feather-damage.
5. Within a few seconds the chicken calms down and becomes accustomed to being upside-down. This usually happens quite quickly.
6. Being upside-down is interpreted by the brain of the chicken as being a condition in which it is appropriate to go into a state of sleep. Within half a minute or so, you have a sleeping chicken in your hands. Or at least, you have hold of the legs of a chicken which is mysteriously hanging there upside-down, asleep.
7. You can now stroke the chicken on the head, and under the chin, and straighten any feathers which might have been ruffled up.
8. It's now possible to carefully lower the chicken and lay it down on a flat surface. With practice it's possible to skillfully drape a sleeping chicken across the top of a television or a conveniently placed garden object. RT: At this point, tie the birds feet with a single piece of rope. The bird will later hang from this rope for butchering.
9. You can in effect leave the chicken on its back with its feet up in the air. This is an extraordinary sight and it beggars belief that a live chicken will remain in such a condition. However, I recommend you don't just walk away and leave it. Two minutes is plenty, and will adequately prove the point that you can definitely hypnotize a chicken.
RT: It is during this time the chicken is easily butchered...or given a post-hypnotic suggestion that it stop smoking. If you kill the chicken, you succeed in both goals. If you kill the bird, there is no step 10, either.
10. At some point, the chicken is roused and will resume its usual right-way-up state, with the feet on the ground, and will walk around almost as if nothing has happened. If anyone says "it still looks a bit dazed" then you're probably showing off your chicken hypnosis technique too much. Go easy on those chickens!
THIS IS PROBABLY THE ONLY TIME YOU GET TO "PRACTICE" KILLING A BIRD, WITHOUT ACTUALLY KILLING IT...
Three Ways to Hypnotize a Chicken
By Linda Riggins
The Old Farmer's Almanac
The following article, written by Linda Riggins, originally appeared in The 1985 Old Farmer's Almanac…. "I've been hypnotizing chickens since I was nine, when the county 4-H agent in Milwaukee showed me how," says Dr. Doris White, a Bernardsville, New Jersey, chicken farmer who is also professor of elementary education at William Paterson College and a chicken hypnotism instructor. "When he taught me, I thought everyone knew how to hypnotize chickens." She was wrong. She points out that "some farmers are still surprised that a person can hypnotize chickens. But after they see me demonstrate how it's done, they go home and try it themselves."
Dr. White shows her audiences two methods of hypnotizing chickens. The Oscillating Finger Method is probably the easier of the two. Place the bird on its side with a wing under its body and hold it down gently. Make sure its head is flat on the table. To hypnotize the bird, use one finger of the free hand, moving the finger back and forth in front of the bird's beak from its tip (without touching it) to a point that is about four inches from the beak. Keep the finger in a line parallel to the beak.
The second technique is the Sternum Stroke Method. Gently put the bird on its back. It may be necessary to use a book, purse, or other item to keep the bird from rolling onto its side. Hold the bird down. Lightly massage the bird's sternum, using the slightly spread thumb and index finger of one hand to do the stroking.
(Editor's Note: A third technique, discovered buried in the files of The Old Farmer's Almanac, is the Chalk Line Method. Draw a straight chalk mark about a foot long. Hold the chicken with its beak on one end of the line, staring straight out at the chalk mark. In a few seconds, the chicken will be hypnotized.)
"A bird will stay hypnotized for a couple of seconds, minutes, or hours," says White, although in her demonstrations they're "out" for only minutes. Regardless of the method used, a sudden movement or loud noise will bring the chicken out of the hypnotic trance.
White adds, "Pheasants go out faster than any other bird. Wild pheasants are very nervous and high-strung, and usually very easy to hypnotize." In her demonstrations, she is protective of pheasants, because after they come out of hypnosis, they are likely to hurt themselves unless they are carefully monitored. Noting that domestic birds are more difficult to hypnotize than wild ones, she suggests that one reason may be wild birds are using a survival skill when they submit to hypnosis.
White has reported the results of her experiments at several New Jersey science conferences and fairs. In one of her studies of 11 birds, the heart and respiration rates, when measured five minutes after hypnosis, were significantly lower than in the pre-hypnotic state. For example, in a Bantam White Cochin cock, the heart rate before hypnosis was 457 beats per minute and after hypnosis 372. The rates for this bird's respiration were 22 and 20 breaths per minute, respectively. The temperatures of nine of these birds went down or were unchanged in the posthypnotic state.
Source: The Old Farmer's Almanac
Taking Hypnotism one Step Farther
The next step after hypnotizing the bird into a stupor, is to kill it as quickly and painlessly as possible. One method, taught in Army Ranger school, is to take a heavy stick, such as a cut-off broom handle, and place it over the birds neck (with the bird laying on the ground). Place one foot on each end of the stick, straddling the bird. Reach down and grab both legs at the thighs, and quickly pull up on the bird. The neck is broken and, if you pulled hard enough, the head pops right off the neck . There will be some struggling from the autonomic system that causes the wings to flap, but that stops shortly. Hang the bird upside down over an opened garbage bag to keep the blood from being tossed all over the place. There will be considerably less struggle from the bird than if you cut off the head of an overly-excited chicken.
Option 2: Use the stick, hold on the hypnotism textfiles.com
This method is quick, easy, and foolproof -- good for those who have a poor aim with a hatchet. Stand on firm level ground. Hold the chicken by its feet with its head on the ground. Lay a broom-handle sized stick over its neck and stand on the stick to hold it down firmly. Pull up on the chicken's feet till the neck dislocates; this will be clearly felt. It is also possible to take off a young chicken's head with a hard pull. This may be disconcerting, but there will be no doubt that the chicken is dead. After dislocation, hold the chicken until it stops flapping, or lay it down where it will not bang into any thing. The movement quickly subsides and is not nearly as bizarre as a chicken running around after its head has been cut off. Ducks and other small poultry can also be killed by this method.
Simply cutting the throat of a live bird causes excessive wing flapping (and meat bruising, and occasionally broken bones) because blood gets into the trachea; only this time the bird is conscious of the fact that it can't get air, and is in a panicked struggle to breathe. Right side up or upside-down, the result of throat cutting (ONLY) will not be a pretty sight, and is VERY painful for the bird. Not a good choice.
Another Method: "Upside-down Brain Stab"
1) Hang the bird upside down from leg shackles. If you don't hurry, the bird will not panic and will not flap. If the bird is hypnotized, it will not know anything at all.
2) Open the bird's mouth, and using a long, thin, sharp knife, stick the tip of the knife through the roof of the mouth into the head and give a slight twist. The bird shudders, and goes completely limp because you have just destroyed what little brain it had. It doesn't feel a thing. (A bonus is the feathers relax, and are easier to pluck.) Then you can cut off the head, and gravity drains excess blood without the bizarre wing flapping and splattering most people are used to. This is similar to "Pithing a frog".
By far and away the oldest technique, and the least safe method, is to behead the chicken while being held down over a tree stump. It requires you to have the head, neck and body of the chicken in the proper position before you cut off the head with one quick chop of an axe or hatchet. It's a lot easier said than done. The chicken will not like your intentions and will not cooperate like French noblemen at the Guillotine.
Because of this struggling, most farmers would "wring" the neck of the chicken, breaking the neck to stop the struggles. It works (mostly) but the autonomic nervous system of the chicken will continue to work, even after the head of the bird is removed. All the bird's muscles will tighten, making feather plucking difficult.
There are numerous stories about chickens running around after decapitation, flinging blood all over the yard. Some articles say this is because the blood running down the chicken's esophagus triggers a "panic" response from the lungs and stomach. This response doesn't seem to need the brain to trigger muscular responses. Whatever the cause, the muscles of the chicken continue to work (for a while) but without the coordination of the brain, the responses are merely muscle contractions, typical of post-mortem neurological responses in every dying animal.
Of all the systems of killing captured birds, RogueTurtle likes the "Upside down and brain scrambling" method best. The entire operation can be done in one place, with the bird hanging inside an opened plastic bag. (See Fig. 1, in the following article from backwoodshome.com.) An upside-down bird will not get blood in the trachea, and cannot run around the yard. The plastic bag is already in place for the next step, butchering.
This next article from backwoodshome.com, has clear and easily understood instructions on the fastest and possibly quickest method of butchering chickens:
Anatomy of a Chicken
|Using a thin, sharp knife, insert into the mouth of the chicken, aiming the point at a spot just behind the eyes. Push the point quickly through the skull, into the brain, and then twisting the blade. The bird will go limp.|
|A close-up of the brain shows the two short optic nerve fibers leading to the brain. A blade slid up through the top of the mouth, aimed between the eyes and slightly to the rear, will instantly kill the bird. It's about as quick as it gets.|
How to butcher a chicken|
in 20 minutes or less...
...while leaving the carcass and feathers intact!
By Dr. Roger W. Grim, D.C.
Source: backwoods home.com
One day I asked Grandpa, “Isn’t there an easier way to dress out a chicken?” He showed me a method with no need to pluck feathers and no smelly stench from a wet chicken. It’s just a fast, easy way to put meat on the table.
Things you will need
- A sharp knife, axe, meat cleaver, or machete for cutting off the head.
- Rope. Cut 3 or 4 pieces of ¼-inch rope 12 to 18 inches long. One is to tie the chicken’s legs together tightly before you cut the head off; otherwise you will have a headless chicken running about the yard. The other is to tie the chicken’s legs onto your hook on a tree or cart.
- A bowl. I use a stainless steel one but any large bowl or panwill do. Put your chicken in it once you cut it away from the carcass.
Figure 2. Front view showing where the cuts are made and how the skin is peeled away
- A large bowl of water. Again I use a stainless steel one. It’s to keep my hands and knife clean while skinning the chickens.
- I use two sawhorses for a table base, over which I placed a sheet of ¾-inch plywood 24 x 48 inches. If you have a small folding table you could use it.
- A clean sheet of plastic or butcher’s paper big enough to cover your work table top. Tape it on or tuck it under the table top.
- I use my trusty cart, setting it up on end. The handle bar is just the right height for me to hang the chickens from and skin. I put a concrete block in it while I’m pulling the skin downward so the cart will not fall on me. A tree branch will also work. RT
- A garden hose is handy to clean your knives and to pre-clean the chicken of any dirt or feathers before they are taken into the house for final cleaning and freezing preparation.
- A large black garbage bag with two twist ties that hold the garbage bag on the cart. Cut the garbage bag two-thirds of the way down so that anything you cut off while skinning, such as the feathers and carcass, goes into the bag (Figure 1).
Figure 3. A view showing how to cut away the mini-wing drumstick
Now you are ready to butcher and skin the chicken.
Tie the chicken’s legs together and cut off its head. Then hang the chicken up by its legs (see Figure 2) with the breast of the chicken facing you. Make the first cut around the yellow part of the leg joint only deep enough to separate the skin, but not deep enough to cut the leg tendon.
Cut and pull down the skin from the leg, cutting just deep enough that the skin will come loose from around the meat. Pull the skin of the chicken down laterally to each side, all the time cutting away the other skin to reveal the leg meat that you will cut off later.
Continue to cut and pull the skin all the way down and backwards around the upper thigh. Continue to cut and pull the skin down around the breast and cut the wing loose at the first joint of the wing (Figure 3). Some people may want to continue to clean and cut around the feathers of the wing for the small tip of the wing bones, but for me there is so little meat it is not worth it.
Figure 4. The skinned carcass, ready for you to take the meat
It’s as easy as 1, 2, 3
Now we are ready to strip the skinned carcass (Figure 4).
First, cut the wings, or mini-drumsticks, off at the joint near the breast. By forcing them backwards and cutting as close to the breast and joint as possible, you will expose the wing joint and you can cut through and around it.
Next, cut the breast out. Lay your knife at an angle, starting the cut as close to the breastbone as possible. Take your knife and stay close to the rib cage while cutting downward and backward in an arcing direction as shown in Figure 5. Repeat the process on the other breast.
You are ready to claim the legs and thighs all in one piece. If you want to separate them later you can do so. Go up to the ankle joint at about ¾ to 1 inch above the “leggin’s” (that’s what I call the scaly yellow part above the feet on the chicken), and cut through and around the joint so that each leggin’ and foot falls free. While holding the drumstick and thigh in the left hand, take your right hand and hold the carcass while at the same time pushing the thigh and drumstick backwards. This is like opening a set of French doors. You will both see and hear the thigh joint pop loose from the hip joint. Cut as close to the round point as possible (Figure 5).
To separate the thigh from the carcass, make the next and final cut at the back upper part of the thigh, just about 1½ to 2 inches next to the anus. You now have a complete thigh and drumstick.
Some folks might say that you are not getting all the meat, that you are leaving the two small bony pieces on the wing tip, the two little scraps of meat on the backbone, the liver, and the neck. I say if you like those parts, go for it.
Figure 5. Side view showing where to cut the meat
Figure 6. The results of a freshly skinned and butchered chicken.
100+ years in our family
With this method, I have butchered chickens for more than 40 years, just like my grandfather did for 60 years before me. I can remember that Grandma’s chicken fried in a cast iron skillet beat Col. Sanders by a mile.
Raising your own stock, whether it be young chicks to fryer size, rabbits, goats, or beef cattle can be a family affair. Children gain knowledge, learn responsibility, and the necessary basics of self-sufficiency.
Chicken in a Pot
Source: us scouts.org
3-4 lb. whole frying chicken
1 tsp. poultry seasoning
1/2 tsp. salt
1/4 tsp. basil
1/4 tsp. pepper
Wash chicken and pat dry. Sprinkle cavity with salt, pepper, and poultry seasoning. Put in Dutch oven and sprinkle with basil. Cover and bake for 4 to 6 hours or until tender. (350 degrees).
Source: us scouts.org
2 lb. chicken breasts, 1" cubes
2 lb. fresh okra, sliced 1/4" slices
2 medium onions, chopped
2 medium bell peppers, chopped
1/2 c celery, chopped
4 tbs. cooking oil
3 tbs. flour
3 medium tomatoes, cut up
2 cloves garlic, minced
salt & pepper to taste
Prepare a rue with cooking oil and flour. Cook until brown, stirring often. Add onion, bell pepper, and garlic. Slowly stir in 1 quart of water. Add salt and pepper to taste. Add cut-up tomatoes, okra and celery. Cover and cook about 30 min, until vegetables are done. Add chicken and simmer an additional 6 min.
Baked Chicken with Cheese
Source: us scouts.org
8 chicken breasts, de-boned
6 tbs. peanut oil
2 tbs. lemon juice
2 tbs. thyme
salt & pepper
8 slices boiled ham
8 slices cheese
8 slices tomato
1 roll aluminum foil
Cut foil into 12" squares, place chicken in center. Combine oil, lemon juice, thyme and mix well. Spoon over breasts. Seal foil well and place in 350 Dutch oven. Bake 30 min. Open foil and place one slice ham, cheese and tomato over each breast. Bake open for 3 to 5 min. Remove from foil and place on serving platter.
Source: papa dutch
8 boneless, skinless chicken breast halves
3 cloves garlic; minced
1 can Coca-Cola
1 Tbs. onion powder
1 1/2 cups catsup
2 Tbs. chili powder
Arrange chicken breasts in an oiled 12" Dutch oven. In a large bowl add remaining ingredients and stir to mix well. Spoon sauce over chicken. Cover oven and bake using 8-10 briquettes bottom and 14-16 briquettes top for 60-75 minutes or until chicken is cooked through basting with pan juices every 15 minutes. Serves: 8
Zippy Sticky Chicken
Source: papa dutch
10 skinless chicken thighs
2 Tbsp. red onion; minced
2/3 cup ketchup
2 cloves garlic; minced
2/3 cup chutney
2 tsp. hot sauce
2 Tbs. olive oil
1 tsp. salt
1 lemon; juiced
1 tsp. coarse ground black pepper
Arrange chicken thighs In a 12" Dutch oven. In a medium bowl mix together olive oil, ketchup, chutney, garlic, onion, salt, pepper, hot sauce and lemon juice. Pour sauce over chicken then cover and bake using 8-10 briquettes bottom and 14-16 briquettes top for 60-75 minutes. Serve over rice. Serves: 8-10
Easy Chicken Dinner
Cut vegetables and potatoes into small pieces for eating. Cut chicken into 8 parts. Skin chicken.
Mix flour and seasonings in plastic bag. Place 2 chicken parts at a time in bag and shake. Remove chicken from bag when coated and repeat until all chicken is coated. Place potatoes in bag and shake.
Remove potatoes from bag.
Put about 1/2 inch of oil in Dutch oven and place on coals. When oil is hot, add chicken and completely brown on all sides. Remove chicken from pot and drain excess oil from pot. Put chicken back in pot. Add approximately 1/4 inch of warm water. Place potatoes and vegetables over chicken. Cover pot and place back on coals.
Put 10 coals on top of oven. Cook for 1 hour or until chicken is tender. Check periodically to ensure there is always a small amount of moisture in the Dutch oven. Bruce Rosen, Scoutmaster Troop 1948, Rockville, MD
4 quarts water
1 large cut-up chicken, preferably stewing or large roaster
Marrow bones (optional)
2 whole onions, unreeled-peeled
4 parsnips, peeled and left whole
1/2 cup chopped celery leaves plus 2 stalks celery and their leaves
1 rutabaga, peeled and quartered
1 large turnip, peeled and quartered
1 kohlrabi, quartered (optional)
6 carrots, peeled and left whole
6 tablespoons chopped fresh parsley
6 tsp. snipped dill
1 tsp. salt
1/4 tsp. pepper
1. Put the water and the chicken in a large pot and bring the water to a boil. Skim off the froth.
2. Add the marrow bones, onions, parsnips, celery, 3/4 of the rutabaga, turnip, kohlrabi, 4 of the carrots, the parsley, 4 tablespoons of the dill, and the salt and pepper. Cover and simmer of 2 1/2 hours, adjusting the seasoning to taste.
3. Strain, remove the chicken, discard the vegetables and refrigerate the liquid to solidify. Remove the skin and bones from the chicken and cut the meat into bite-size chunks. Refrigerate. Remove the fat from the soup.
4. Just before serving, reheat the soup. Bring to a boil. Cut the zucchini and the remaining 2 carrots into thin strips and add to the soup along with the remaining rutabaga cut into thin strips as well as a few pieces of chicken. Simmer about 15 minutes or until the vegetables are cooked, but still firm. Serve with the remaining snipped dill. You can also add noodles, marrow, or matzah balls.
Tip: Make a chicken salad with the remaining chicken pieces. If you want a lighter-colored soup, peel the onions and remove the chicken as soon as the water boils. Throw out the water, put in new water, add the chicken again with the remaining ingredients, and proceed as above.
Yield: about 10 servings (M).
Jewish Cooking in America
To make chicken broth simply toss your chicken carcass (the bones and fat left after you ate the chicken) in a pot of water with an onion and a bay leaf. Simmer this for a long time, strain it through cheese cloth, and when cool, refrigerate. Once cold, remove the chicken fat with a spatula and discard the fat. What remains is a wonderful giggly chicken Jell-O perfect for your next cooking adventure.
Campfire Chicken Dinner
Source: cooking cache.com
Baby Red potatoes
Corn on the Cob
Salt and Pepper
Spices of your choice
You will need large pieces of the Heavy Duty Aluminum foil for this recipe. You will need 1 piece for each person eating. Salt, pepper and spice the pieces of foil. Place a chicken half MEATY SIDE down in the spices. Arrange potatoes, carrots, and corn on the cob around the chicken. Cut onions and tomatoes into wedges or slices, whichever you prefer and place on top. Close the aluminum foil well so all juices will stay contained. Either grill this or bake in a 325°F oven until all is tender. The slower you cook this, the more tender and flavorful it will be. This is a recipe I mimicked from Cracker Barrel. It is just delicious and VERY LOW FAT!!!!
RT: This foil packet can be used in the coals from a campfire after the flames have died out, and I agree, it is delicious. You can vary the veggies to your own taste. The foil packet makes it a mini-pressure cooker. If you put the foil packets in the coals, make sure not to punch a hole in the foil and let the steam out. If you do, pick it out and repack it in another piece of foil. Add 2 tsp. of water to make up for lost liquids.
Chicken on a Stick
Source: all recipes.com
4 skinless, boneless chicken breast halves
1 teaspoon meat tenderizer
1/2 cup Italian-style salad dressing
Rinse chicken breasts and pat dry. Sprinkle with the meat tenderizer and place in a sealable plastic bag. Pour the dressing in the bag and turn the chicken to coat thoroughly. Seal and marinate in the refrigerator for 30 minutes to 1 hour.
Preheat an outdoor grill for medium heat and lightly oil grate.
Place the chicken onto skewers and grill over medium heat for 5 to 10 minutes per side. Chicken is done when its juices run clear.
RT: The most basic chicken on a stick is a green (sweet-wood) stick and a campfire. Hold the stick with the chicken over the fire (preferably hot coals) and keep turning it until done. When juices run clear, the bird is ready to eat. All fowl (or any meat) cooks faster in small pieces. Keep an eye on the green stick, and if it starts to burn, get another stick. Watch out, the hot bird can burn your hands. To make the sticks last longer, soak them in water prior to use. DO NOT EAT RAW CHICKEN!!!!
You have probably noticed the recipes I have given you so far have been simple, campfire-type meals. I did this on purpose. Almost all of us can prepare and eat a chicken meal using a full kitchen and all the associated tools, hardware and spices. It is both simpler and harder to cook outdoors. It's harder because you don't have a lot of control over cooking temperature. Many times, to change cooking heat you have to either raise or lower the meal over the fire. There are no dials to set, or buttons to push on a campfire. Outdoor cooking is simpler because you will not have as many ingredients to use in your recipes.
The closest you can get to home-oven type cooking is the Dutch oven. Here, adding or subtracting coals from the bottom and/or top controls the internal temperature.
The goal of all outdoor cooking is not only to eat, but to eat well. To eat well, you have to cook healthy food prepared in a healthy manner. The rules of (cooking) hygiene at home still apply when cooking in the woods. That's one of the reasons I like the "chicken on a stick". When you're done, simply burn the stick in the fire. No cleanup required.